Few men are born brave; many become so through care and force of discipline.

– Flavius Vegetius Renatus

Many pages have been written on the subject of medieval and renaissance combat treatises, every year new translations, books, essays and blogs are added to the bibliography of weapons and combat during the Medieval Ages and the Renaissance. However, the subject on how knights and period fencers trained, especially as related to physical conditioning and strength remains nearly unexplored.

There is a mildly generalized understanding that these groups trained their bodies swinging heavy weapons, moving large and heavy objects and throwing stones, but many misconceptions around this subject remain, that is why we will present the advice given by the old combat masters, as well as some statements made in some period documents, and we will briefly analyze some period illustrations, looking for a better understanding of how these men prepared for combat.

Classical Influence

Probably one of the most influential texts during the middle ages and the renaissance, related to combat and military training was the treatise written by the roman writer Flavius Vegetius; entitled “Epitoma Rei Militaris”. In the first book, of the four that form his work, Vegetius lists several activities in which recruits should train at. Those activities can be split in four categories: physical work, hand to hand combat, ranged combat and horseback combat.

Related to physical combat he states that recruits should be capable to march near 25 km, in five hours, they should also run, and jump (more likely avoiding obstacles) on a regular basis. During summer months he also recommends swimming when possible. And indicates that it was customary to have three sessions a month, in which recruits should march around 12 km carrying close to 20 kg. Finally Vegetius recommends that all men at arms are accustomed to physical work, such as chopping wood, carrying weight or crossing ditches.

Referring to hand to hand combat, he observes several times the importance to train the recruits on the armatura, which is the use of the weapons, making use of the well known practice of hitting a pole sticked to the ground with wooden weapons, that weighted about twice as much as the real ones. Vegetius also affirms that recruits should be trained twice a day in this fashion, once in the morning, and then again in the afternoon after their meal. Meanwhile the veterans should do it once a day in a non-stop fashion.

He also considers it crucial that the recruits acquire skill handling a horse, and advises that during the winter months, when it was not possible to ride outside, wooden horses were built to train indoors mounting and dismounting techniques. And he constantly puts emphasis on the importance to train the recruits with the bow and arrow, the throw of javelin, and on the use of the sling.

The words of the combat masters

Throughout the middle ages the advice given by Vegetius to keep the troops in good physical shape was maintained almost unaltered. Running, swimming, jumping, fencing, wrestling, riding and what later would be named vaulting were still kept in great esteem.

Hans Talhoffer, a very well known fencing master, in his mid 1400’s work, most likely dedicated to Luithold von Königsegg, recommends to his student, just like Vegetius did, to train twice a day, once in the morning, the second time in the afternoon: “practice for two hours with effort, do not eat much fat, practice again in the afternoon for two hours”. Also, he encourages his student to:

Strive after integrity

апd take great pains

in your knightly practices:

throwing апd pushing stones,

dancing апd jumping,

fencing апd wrestling,

running at the lance апd tournaments,

апd courting beautiful women.

TalhofferNotice how Talhoffer refers to knightly practices, including throwing and pushing stones, an activity that will be constantly repeated in the period works, and within an important amount of iconographical representation, this practice within the Germanic territories is referred as steintossen and remains one of the Swiss national sports. This is also similar to Vegetius advice to accustom men to deal with heavy objects.

We can also see that he includes jumping, once more possibly referring to jumping over obstacles, which would be needed to avoid difficulties on the battlefield. He also includes dancing, something that will be advised by some other authors around the time. Despite not mention it explicitly, the addition of horseback combat in his treatise reaffirms the necessity to master the equitation.

On a similar note, Portuguese king Duarte I, in his work Livro dos conselhos dedicates a segment to physical training, named “Regimento para aprender alguas cousas armas”. In it we can find another reference to the long march carrying weight:

On the third hour on some days he goes to practice. And to practice he should arm himself with all weapons and goes on foot a great distance up a [hill] for a long length, to strengthen himself.

… and another recommendation to use heavier weapons to train

And when wishing to test with a particular weapon he does so with a heavier weapon which is something more than those seeking to carry on the day of combat.

By the end of the 16 Century, the Italian master Giacomo di Grassi includes by the end of his work a brief section on physical training and body strengthening where he makes some fascinating claims. In first place he mentions that, indeed, those who shall fight had, or should had, a specialized training regime, their strength, thus, was not exclusively a result of daily labor, as commonly thought:

You shall see gentleman, knights, and others to be most strong and nimble in running or leaping, or in vaulting, or in turning on horseback, and yet are not able by a great deal to bear so great a burden as a Country man or porter: But in contrary in running and leaping, the porter and Country man are most slow and heavy, neither know how to vault upon their horse without a ladder. And this proceeds of no other cause, than for that every man is not exercised in that which is most esteemed.

Notice that this specialized training, written a century after Talhoffer’s work, and eleven centuries after Vegetius, still recommends running, jumping and vaulting. Di Grassi also mentions the use of heavy weapons to strengthen the arms, actually this seems to be his favorite method to do so, however, he opposes the traditional way of starting with the heavier weapon, instead, he recommends to start with the real weapon or a lighter one, and increase the weight from there:

I commend not their opinion any way, who will for the strengthening of a man’s arm that he handle first a heavy weapon, because being first used to them, afterwards, ordinary weapons will seem the lighter unto him, but I think rather the contrary, to wit, that first to the end, he does not over burden and choke his strength, he handle a very light sword, and such a one, that he may most nimbly move. For the end of this art is not to lift up or bear great burdens, but to move swiftly.

But yet after he has sometime travailed with a light weapon, then it is necessary according as he feels himself to increase in strength of arm, that he take another in hand, that is something heavier, and such a one as will put him to a little more pain, but yet not so much, that his swiftness in motion be hindered thereby. And as his strength increases, to increase likewise the weight by little and little. So it will not be long, but that he shall be able to manage very nimbly any heavy sword.

Additionally Di Grassi highlights the importance of finding a balance on the body strength, meaning that a man should be strong enough that he can move anything, but not so big that he can’t move nimbly anymore:

Let a man be never so strong and lusty, yet he shall deliver a blow more slow and with less force than another shall who is less strong, but more exercised: and without a doubt he shall so weary his arms, hands and body, that he cannot long endure to labor in any such business… such weariness is vanquished by exercise… but that the body feet and arms are so strengthen, that heavy things seems light, and that they are able to handle very nimbly any kind of weapon, and in brief overcome all kind of difficulty and hardness.

Other period works

SolThe hausbuch Wolfegg, a late 15 Century manuscript that illustrates daily life passages from the south German region, presents several illustrations of a knights routine. In the housebuch can be seen the “courting beautiful women” mentioned by Talhoffer in his MS XIX.17-3 introduction, also the importance of jousting, tournaments and hunting can be seen. However the most relevant illustration for this paper is the one denominated “Sol”, since it shows several men training. Two of them fight with staves, two more wrestle with fechtschwerter at their feet, while another pair exercises; one lifting stones, the other one throwing them.

Another example comes from Konungs skuggsjá, or “King’s Mirror”, a text written during the mid 13 Century, dedicated to the future King Magnus VI of Norway. The book includes advice given to the young prince about how a king shall handle different social, political and moral matters. In the section The Duties, Activities, and Amusements of the Royal Guardsmen the prince asks his father to “point out the manners and customs which you think would be becoming to me, if I were employed in the royal service” within the long answer provided by the father several activities worthy of a king’s men and how he should train are listed, once more, both vaulting and horse riding are among the recommendations:

… you should prefer the forms of amusement which I shall now point out to you. If you are sojourning where horses may be ridden and you have your own horse, put on heavy armor and, mounting your horse, train yourself in the art of sitting on horseback in the firmest and most handsome manner. Train yourself to press the foot firmly into the stirrup; keep your leg stiff and the heel a little lower than the toes, except when you have to guard against thrusts from the front; and practice sitting firmly with the thighs pressed close. Cover your breast and limbs carefully with a curved shield. Train your left hand to grasp firmly the bridle and the grip of the shield, and your right hand to direct the spear-thrust so that all your bodily strength will support it. Train your good steed to veer about when in full gallop; keep him clean and in good condition; keep him shod firmly and well, and provide him with a strong and handsome harness.

When it is not possible to work on a horse, the father then advices, using full armor, just as King Duarte I did, to look for a partner to drill with the sword, shied and buckler, and states that is better to do so twice a day:

But if you are in a borough or some such place where horses cannot be used for recreation, you should take up this form of amusement: go to your chambers and put on heavy armor; next look up some fellow henchman (he may be a native or an alien) who likes to drill with you and whom you know to be well trained to fight behind a shield or a buckler. Always bring heavy armor to this exercise, either chain-mail or a thick gambeson, and carry a heavy sword and a weighty shield or buckler in your hand. In this game you should strive to learn suitable thrusts and such counterstrokes as are good, necessary, and convenient. Learn precisely how to cover yourself with the shield, so that you may be able to guard well when you have to deal with a foeman. If you feel that it is important to be well trained in these activities, go through the exercise twice a day, if it is convenient; but let no day pass, except holidays, without practicing this drill at least once; for it is counted proper for all king’s men to master this art and, moreover, it must be mastered if it is to be of service.

The father’s final advice on training and worthy pastimes for a king’s men refers to lance throwing, heavier than the ones to be used on the battlefield, archery, and sling, as Vegetius said before, but he also refers to acquire the ability to handle weapons with both hands, calling those with such skill as the most perfect and dangerous:

If you should like to try a variety of drills and pastimes, there are certain sports that one can take up out of doors, if that is thought more diverting. For one thing, you may have a pole prepared, somewhat heavier than a spear shaft, and put up a mark some distance away for a target; with these you can determine how far and how accurately you can throw a spear and do it effectively. It is also counted rare sport and pastime to take one’s bow and go with other men to practice archery. Another pleasant and useful diversion is to practice throwing with a sling both for distance and for accuracy, and with a staff sling as well as with a hand sling, and to practice throwing stone missiles. Formerly the custom was for all who wished to become expert in such arts and thoroughly proficient in war and chivalry to train both hands alike to the use of weapons. Strive after the same skill, if you find yourself gifted for it, inasmuch as those who are trained in that way are the most perfect in these activities and the most dangerous to their enemies.

The paper “Using the “F” Word – The Role of Fitness in Historical Fencing” presents a series of testimonies and evidence of the training followed by the knightly classes, and by the common ones during the middle ages and the Renaissance, among them is particularly interesting what Jean Le Maingre, also known as Boucicaut, who lived by the end of the XIV Century, a contemporary to Duarte I of Portugal, and who was a famous French knight, stated about a squire training:

Now cased in armour, he would practise leaping on to the back of a horse; anon, to accustom himself to become long-winded and enduring, he would walk and run long distances on foot, or he would practice striking numerous and forcible blows with a battle-axe or mallet. In order to accustom himself to the weight of his armour, he would turn somersaults whilst clad in a complete suit of mail, with the exception of his helmet, or would dance vigorously in a shirt of steel; he would place one hand on the saddle-bow of a tall charger, and the other on his neck, and vault over him…He would climb up between two perpendicular walls that stood four or five feet asunder by the mere pressure of his arms and legs, and would thus reach the top, even if it were as high as a tower, without resting either in the ascent or descent…When he was at home, he would practice with the other young esquires at lance-throwing and other warlike exercises, and this continually.

Further than attesting again the common practice of vaulting, javelin throwing, and training with heavy weapons, I found remarkable his mention of dancing, coincident with Talhoffer’s advice to his student Luithold von Königsegg, a couple of decades later, and that evocates some period, and more modern, dances such as those executed by the Scottish highland regiments. It also mentions an eye-catching drill described by Bocicaut in which “He would climb up between two perpendicular walls… asunder by the mere pressure of his arms and legs” that resembles a modern drill known as the Spider Walk.

The paper also mentions Dr. Karl Wassmannsdorff’s works, a renown 19 Century German historian. According to the author he “stated that knightly physical training in the German regions from at least the 1400’s included riding, fencing, horse-jumping, dancing, wrestling, and running…” Other exercises described in Wassmannsdorff’s works are the Wandlaufen, wall running, jumping over different obstacles, the already commented Steinstossen, the Stangeschieben, a lance throwing variation and the Strebkatze, similar to the tug-o-war but using fabric.

Some modern military practices

We can observe some parallels between those practices advised by the old combat masters and the training performed in modern armies. Running and marching are still in full use in pretty much any modern army, the US Army Physical Training Guide consider both as part of the Initial Military Training:

IMT will challenge your cardiorespiratory endurance in activities such as: ability group runs, speed running, foot marching, obstacle and bayonet assault course negotiation, and common skills training.

Advice given by Vegetius and several of the already quoted medieval authors on implementing jumping or leaping are somehow equivalent to modern obstacle courses, used to teach soldiers to move freely on any field, to increase their strength, and improve their cardiovascular endurance.

Even though steel armor is out of daily use, tactical gear is not, and is of vital importance that every recruit gets used to carrying it, so full gear foot march and other drills are constantly practiced. Also carrying heavy objects is part of modern army training, as part of the Combat Fitness Test from the U.S. Marines Corps is required that the applicant carries a couple of ammo cans weighting around 30 pounds each, and this exercise is used in several field drills. Other examples involving carrying heavy objects come from the basic underwater demolition training performed by the candidates to Navy Seals, in one of them a six men group have to carry a log, weighting around 200 pounds and perform several exercises with it.

ArmyThe author from “Using the “F” Word” mentions that Uppsala’s Archbishop Olaus Magnus in his History of the Northern Peoples describes how Nordic warriors exercised moving heavy objects, so they could aid wounded fellows to get out from the battlefield:

Stones or blocks they throw so that they will learn how to with force heave aside obstacles or hold heavy objects lifted, as it is to become of those, who in combat have become wounded; since these shall be brought out of the battle to quickly get medical care, they must be supported upon the arms of strong comrades so that they will not fall down.

Modern soldiers Buddieare trained to transport injured comrades, there are at least three common techniques to do so: dragging the partner by grabbing him under the armpits, also known as the “buddy drag”, carrying him using the “fireman carry” (both drills are also part of the Combat Fitness Test from the US Marines) or when in group using a cradle or improvising one.

We should keep in mind that the medieval view on physical training, just as in many aspects of daily life, differs largely from the one we have in modern times. Talking specifically about professional armies, it is important to remember that these started to be formed in the mid XV Century, and there is no information that can back up the idea of a standardized training, similar to the followed by modern armies, nevertheless, this brief comparison allows us to proof the continuity of training concepts used since, at least, the Romans, and that keep their validity until modern days.

Some final considerations

After all the quoted references throughout out this work, we can assure with some certainty that the training of a knight or medieval/renaissance fencer would include some of these exercises: to increase his endurance, foot march, probably wearing full armor to get used to the weight, running and jumping over obstacles, and sometimes also dancing, perhaps wearing armor, or over a shield or a couple of swords to improve their footwork. To strengthen their body, carrying and pushing large and heavy objects, throwing stones, lances and javelins (usually heavier than those to be used in actual combat). And activities that would combine strength and conditioning with technical improvement: wrestling, equitation and vaulting, and of course the use of the weapons, normally with a partner and as a generalized advice making use of simulators heavier that the weapons to be used in combat. About training time it seems the recommended standard would be to train twice a day, especially with weapons, once in the morning and once more in the evening.

FechtschuleWhat part that some acrobatic/gymnastic/calisthenics movements played in this training is a question that remains unsolved, since it is common to find men portrayed executing bridges or handstands next to other throwing stones or training with weapons.

Some might criticize the omission of other activities of major and undeniable importance to the medieval and renaissance noble and knightly classes like jousting and tournaments, hunting, warlike games and similar activities, but said omission was intentional under the premise that to joust or hunt, to fight in a tournament, the individual needed to have mastered horse riding, or the use of the weapons and needed to be in good physical shape, so all of these activities were where they could test some skills, not where they would learn them.

It is only left to say that this work is part of a ongoing research that is still far from finished, so it will have to be revised extensively once more sources had been deeply studied.

*I’d like to thank Jean Henry Chandler for proof reading this work and pointing me in the direction of several related documents.


  1. Flavius Vegetius Renatus. Epitoma Rei Militaris.
  2. MS XIX.17-3, Talhoffer, Hans.
  3. Det Kongelige Bibliotek, MS Thott.290.2°, Talhoffer, Hans; 1459
  4. Duarte Livro dos conselhos.
  5. Di Grassi, Giacomo. His True Arte of Defence, plainlie teaching by infallable Demonstrations apt Figures and perfect Rules the manner and forme how a man without other Teacher or Master may safelie handle all sortes of Weapons as well offensive as defensive. Londres,
  6. Using the “F” Word – The Role of Fitness in Historical Fencing. Recovered from: http://www.thearma.org/essays/fit/RennFit.htm#.V1rayvnhCM9
  7. Army pocket physical training guide. Recovered from: http://www.goarmy.com/downloads/physical-training-guide.html